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1683 (MDCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1683rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 683rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1683, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July 8 – Qing Dynasty Chinese admiral Shi Lang leads 300 ships with 20,000 troops out of Tongshan, Fujian, and sails towards the Kingdom of Tungning, in modern-day Taiwan and Penghu, in order to quell the kingdom in the name of Qing.
- July 14 – A 140,000-man Ottoman force arrives at Vienna, and starts to besiege the city.
- July 16 and July 17 – Battle of Penghu: Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang defeats the naval forces of Zheng Keshuang, in a decisive victory.
- September 5 – Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang receives the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang, ushering in the collapse of the Kingdom of Tungning, which is then incorporated into the Qing Empire.
- September 12 – Battle of Vienna: The Ottoman siege of the city is broken, with the arrival of a force of 70,000 Poles, Austrians and Germans under Polish–Lithuanian king Jan III Sobieski, whose cavalry turns their flank (considered to be the turning point in the Ottoman Empire's fortunes). 
- October 3 – Shi Lang reaches Taiwan and occupies present day Kaohsiung.
- October 6 – Germantown, Philadelphia is founded as the first permanent German settlement in North America (in 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares a 300th Year Celebration, and in 1987, it becomes an annual holiday, German-American Day).
- November 1 – The English crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.
- December – The River Thames freezes, allowing a frost fair to be held.
- January 13 – Christoph Graupner, German composer (d. 1760)
- January 29 – Juan de Galavís, Spanish Catholic Archbishop of Santo Domingo, Bogotá (d. 1739)
- February 28 – René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist (d. 1757)
- March 1 – Caroline of Ansbach, British queen and regent, wife of George II of Great Britain (d. 1737)
- April 3 – Mark Catesby, English naturalist (d. 1749)
- June 23 – Étienne Fourmont, French orientalist (d. 1745)
- September 7 – Maria Anna of Austria, Archduchess of Austria and queen consort of Portugal (d. 1754)
- September 11 – Farrukhsiyar, Mughal Emperor (d. 1719)
- September 25 – Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer (d. 1764)
- October 17 – Aixin-Jueluo Yuntang, born Aixin-Jueluo Yintang, Qing prince (d. 1726)
- October 25 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (d. 1757)
- November 10 – King George II of Great Britain (d. 1760)
- November 30 – Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller, Austrian field marshal (d. 1744)
- December 19 – King Philip V of Spain (d. 1746)
- December 27 – Conyers Middleton, English minister (d. 1750)
- date unknown
- January 2 – Sir Thomas Twisden, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1602)
- January 14 – Edward Thurland, English politician (b. 1607)
- January 15 – Philip Warwick, English writer and politician (b. 1609)
- January 21 – Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, British politician (b. 1621)
- January 28 – Julian Maunoir, French Jesuit priest (b. 1606)
- January 30 – Cesare Facchinetti, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1608)
- February 18 – Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem, Dutch painter (b. 1620)
- February 27 – Engel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (b. 1649)
- February 28 – Johann Paul Freiherr von Hocher, Austrian chancellor (b. 1616)
- March 6 – Guarino Guarini, Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque (b. 1624)
- March 8 – Robert Paston, 1st Earl of Yarmouth, English politician, earl (b. 1631)
- March 11 – Giovanni Bernardo Carboni, Italian painter (b. 1614)
- March 14 – Robert Montagu, 3rd Earl of Manchester, English politician (b. 1634)
- March 16 – Henrik Bjelke, Norwegian military officer (b. 1615)
- March 19 – Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist (b. 1612)
- April 28 – Daniel Casper von Lohenstein, German writer, diplomat and lawyer (b. 1635)
- March 29 – Yaoya Oshichi, young Japanese girl burned at the stake for arson (b. 1667)
- May 2 – Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (b. 1613)
- May 15 – John Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (b. 1627)
- June 4 – Wolfgang George Frederick von Pfalz-Neuburg, German bishop (b. 1659)
- July 7 – Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel, daughter of William VI (b. 1661)
- July 10 – François Eudes de Mézeray, French historian (b. 1610)
- July 13 – Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, English statesman (b. 1631)
- July 21 – William Russell, Lord Russell, English politician (b. 1639)
- July 26 – Jean Le Vacher, French Lazarist missionary and French consul (b. 1619)
- July 30 – Maria Theresa of Spain, French queen, married to Louis XIV of France (b. 1638)
- August 18 – Charles Hart, English actor (b. 1625)
- August 22 – Sir John Hobart, 3rd Baronet, English landowner and politician (b. 1628)
- August 24 – John Owen, English non-conformist theologian (b. 1616)
- September 6 – Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French minister of finance (b. 1619)
- September 12 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (b. 1643)
- September 17 – John Campanius, Swedish Lutheran minister in New Sweden (b. 1601)
- October 8 – Philipp Friedrich Böddecker, German organist and composer (b. 1607)
- October 9 – Francesco Caetani, 8th Duke of Sermoneta, Governor of the Duchy of Milan (b. 1613)
- October 25 – William Scroggs, lord chief justice of England (b. c. 1623)
- November 10
- November 16 – Margareta Huitfeldt, Norwegian-Swedish noble (b. 1608)
- November 29 – John Wright, British politician (b. 1615)
- December 7
- December 13 – Anna Sophia II, Abbess of Quedlinburg, Abbesses of Quedlinburg (b. 1638)
- December 15 – Izaak Walton, English writer (b. 1593)
- December 16 – John Knight, Member of the Parliament of England (b. 1613)
- December 25 – Samuel Clarke, English writer and priest (b. 1599)
- December 27 – Maria Francisca of Savoy (b. 1646)
- date unknown