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2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2001st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1st year of the 3rd millennium, the 1st year of the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2000s decade.
2001 was designated as:
- International Year of Volunteers
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- January 1 – Kolkata officially restores name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India.
- January 10 – The U.S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner.
- January 13 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people and leaving thousands homeless.
- January 15 – Wikipedia is launched.
- January 19 – Mexican drug lord and the head of the Sinaloa cartel Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán escapes from Puente Grande prison.
- January 20
- George W. Bush is sworn in as the 43rd President of the United States.
- Impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, end preeminently and trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution (or People Power II). His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic.
- January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs.
- January 26 – The 7.7 Mw Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving 13,805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured.
- January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years.
- February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii.
- February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
- February 13 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400.
- February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraq's air defense network.
- February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years.
- February 19 – The 2001 UK foot-and-mouth crisis begins.
- February 28 – The Great Heck rail crash occurs.
- March 2 – The Taliban begins destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas.
- March 4 – A bomb explodes at BBC Television Centre in London, UK.
- March 23
- March 24 – The first release of Mac OS X is released as the successor to Mac OS 9 and the Mac OS X Public Beta, which would not cease to function until May 14.
- April 1
- Hainan Island incident: A Chinese fighter jet bumps into a U.S. EP-3E surveillance aircraft, which is forced to make an emergency landing in Hainan, China. The U.S. crew is detained for 10 days and the F-8 Chinese pilot, Wang Wei, goes missing and is presumed dead.
- Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
- In the Netherlands, the Act on the Opening up of Marriage goes into effect. The Act allows same-sex couples to marry legally for the first time in the world since the reign of Nero.
- April 28 – Soyuz TM-32 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the first space tourist, American Dennis Tito.
- May 6 – Space tourist Dennis Tito returns to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-31. (Soyuz TM-32 is left docked at the International Space Station as a new lifeboat.)
- May 7 – In Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, an attempt is made to reconstruct the Ferhadija mosque. However, the ceremony results in mass riots by Serb nationalists, who beat and stone 300 elderly Bosnian Muslims.
- May 13 – Silvio Berlusconi wins the general election and becomes Prime Minister of Italy for the second time.
- May 22 – A large trans-Neptunian object (28978 Ixion) is found during the Deep Ecliptic Survey.
- May 24
- June 1
- Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal kills his father, the king, his mother and other members of the royal family with an assault rifle and then shoots himself in the Nepalese royal massacre. Dipendra dies June 4, as King of Nepal. His uncle Gyanendra accedes to the throne.
- A Hamas suicide bomber kills 21, mostly teenagers, in the Dolphinarium disco in Tel Aviv, Israel.
- June 5–9 – Tropical Storm Allison produces 36 inches (900 mm) of rain in Houston, killing 22, damaging the Texas Medical Center, and causing more than US$5 billion of damage overall.
- June 6 – U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont leaves the Republican Party to caucus as an independent with Democrats, handing majority control of the Senate to the Democratic Party and Majority Leader Tom Daschle.
- June 7 – George W. Bush signs the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, the first tax cut of a series now known as the Bush tax cuts.
- June 11 – In Terre Haute, Indiana, Timothy McVeigh is executed for the Oklahoma City bombing.
- June 19 – A missile hits a soccer field in northern Iraq (Tel Afr County), killing 23 and wounding 11. According to U.S. officials, it was an Iraqi missile that malfunctioned.
- June 20 – Andrea Yates drowns all 5 of her young children in Houston, as a way to save them from Satan.
- June 21 – The world's longest train is set up by BHP Iron Ore and is recorded going between Newman and Port Hedland in Western Australia (a distance of 275 km, or 170 miles) and the train consists of 682 loaded iron ore wagons and 8 GE AC6000CW locomotives, giving a gross weight of almost 100,000 tonnes and moves 82,262 tonnes of ore; the train is 7.353 km (4.569 mi) long.
- June 23 – The 8.4 Mw southern Peru earthquake shakes coastal Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A destructive tsunami followed, leaving at least 75 people dead, and 2,687 injured.
- July 2 – The world's first self-contained artificial heart is implanted in Robert Tools in the United States.
- July 3 – Vladivostok Air Flight 352 crashes on approach to landing at Irkutsk Airport, Russia, killing 145.
- July 7 – 2001 Bradford riots: Race riots erupt in Bradford in the north of England after National Front members reportedly stab an Asian man outside a pub.
- July 13 – The International Olympic Committee awards Beijing the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics.
- July 16
- July 18 – In Baltimore, Maryland, a 60-car train derailment occurs in a tunnel, sparking a fire that lasts days and virtually shuts down downtown Baltimore.
- July 19 – UK politician and novelist Jeffrey Archer is sentenced to 4 years in prison for perjury and perverting the course of justice.
- July 20–22 – The 27th G8 summit takes place in Genoa, Italy. Massive demonstrations are held against the meeting by members of the anti-globalization movement. One demonstrator, Carlo Giuliani, is killed by a policeman. Several others are badly injured during a police attack on a school used by the protesters as their headquarters.
- July 24
- August 1 – Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore has a Ten Commandments monument installed in the judiciary building, leading to a lawsuit to have it removed and his own removal from office.
- August 6 – Erwadi fire incident, 28 mentally ill persons tied to chain were burnt to death at a faith based institution at Erwadi, Tamil Nadu.
- August 9 – A Sbarro restaurant in Jerusalem is attacked by a Palestinian militant, who kills 15 civilians and wounds 130.
- August 10 – The 2001 Angola train attack, causing 252 deaths.
- August 21 – NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the Republic of Macedonia.
- August 24 – Air Transat Flight 236 runs out of fuel over the Atlantic Ocean (en route to Lisbon from Toronto) and makes an emergency landing in the Azores.
- August 25 – American singer Aaliyah and several members of her record company are killed as their overloaded aircraft crashes shortly after takeoff from Marsh Harbour Airport, Bahamas.
- August 31 – September 1 – The 2001 Vancouver TV realignment occurs in British Columbia, Canada.
- August 31 – The World Conference against Racism 2001 begins in Durban, South Africa.
- September – The piece As Slow as Possible, composed by John Cage, begins. It will last 639 years, finishing in the year 2640.
- September 3
- In Belfast, Protestant loyalists begin a picket of Holy Cross, a Catholic primary school for girls. For the next 11 weeks, riot police escort the schoolchildren and their parents through hundreds of protesters, amid rioting and heightened violence.
- The United States, Canada and Israel withdraw from the U.N. Conference on Racism because they feel that the issue of Zionism is overemphasized.
- September 4 – Tokyo DisneySea opens to the public as part of the Tokyo Disney Resort in Urayasu, Chiba, Japan.
- September 6 – United States v. Microsoft Corp.: The United States Justice Department announces that it no longer seeks to break up software maker Microsoft, and will instead seek a lesser antitrust penalty.
- September 9
- September 10
- September 11 – 2,977 victims are killed in the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City, New York, The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and in rural Shanksville, Pennsylvania after American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 are hijacked and crash into the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, American Airlines Flight 77 is hijacked and crashes into the Pentagon, and United Airlines Flight 93 is hijacked and crashes into grassland in Shanksville, due to the passengers fighting to regain control of the airplane. The World Trade Center towers collapse as a result of the crashes.
- September 12 – Ansett Australia Airlines is placed into administration, the company's fleet is grounded 2 days later on September 14.
- September 13 – Civilian aircraft traffic resumes in the United States after the September 11 attacks.
- September 14 – Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation's capital.
- September 17 – The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression.
- September 18 – The 2001 anthrax attacks commence as letters containing anthrax spores are mailed from Princeton, New Jersey to ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, the New York Post, and the National Enquirer. Twenty-two in total are exposed; five of them die.
- September 20 – In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a "War on Terror".
- September 21
- In Toulouse, France, the AZote Fertilisant chemical factory explodes, killing 29 and seriously wounding over 2,500.
- Increased racial tensions in Peterborough, England following the September 11 attacks result in the murder of Ross Parker by a gang of ten Muslims in a racially motivated attack.
- Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly.
- America: A Tribute to Heroes is broadcast by over 35 network and cable channels, raising over $200 million for the victims of the September 11 attacks.
- September 27 – Zug massacre: In Zug, Switzerland, Friedrich Leibacher shoots 18 citizens, killing 14 and then himself.
- October 1 – Militants attack the state legislature building in Srinagar, Kashmir, killing 38.
- October 2 – Swissair seeks for bankruptcy protection and grounds its entire fleet, resulting in over 230 flights cancelled and stranding 18,000 people worldwide.
- October 4 – Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 crashes over the Black Sea en route from Tel Aviv, Israel, to Novosibirsk, Russia; 78 are killed.
- October 7 – War in Afghanistan: The United States invades Afghanistan, with participation from other nations, thus officially beginning the War on Terror.
- October 8
- October 9 – Second mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks.
- October 11 – The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection.
- October 15 – NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles (180 km) of Jupiter's moon Io.
- October 17 – Israeli tourism minister Rehavam Ze'evi becomes the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack.
- October 19 – SIEV X sinks en route to Christmas Island, killing 353 people.
- October 23
- October 25 – Microsoft releases Windows XP.
- October 26 – U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act into law.
- November 2 – The Glocal Forum, leading international organization in the field of city-to-city cooperation, is established by Ambassador Uri Savir.
- November 4
- November 7 – Sabena, the national airline of Belgium, goes bankrupt.
- November 10
- November 11 – Journalists Pierre Billaud, Johanne Sutton and Volker Handloik are killed in Afghanistan during an attack on the convoy they are traveling in.
- November 12
- November 13 – In the first such act since World War II, U.S. President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against any foreigners suspected of having connections to terrorist acts or planned acts against the United States.
- November 14 – War in Afghanistan: Northern Alliance fighters take over the capital Kabul.
- November 15 – Bungie and the Original Xbox, releases Halo 1, which single-handedly jump starts the Xbox and its genre, has since been the dominate genre in the gaming industry.
- November 20 – U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the United States Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.
- November 23 – The Convention on Cybercrime is signed in Budapest, Hungary.
- November 27 – A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.
- November 30 – Gary Ridgway, a.k.a. The Green River Killer, is arrested outside the truck factory where he had worked in Renton, Washington. His arrest marked the end of one of the longest running homicide investigations in US history.
- December – The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty produces a report on Responsibility to protect.
- December 1 – The last Trans World Airlines flight lands at St. Louis International Airport, following TWA's purchase by American Airlines.
- December 2
- Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection 5 days after Dynegy cancels a US$8.4 billion buyout bid (to this point, the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history).
- 1998–2002 Argentine great depression: Corralito – The government effectively freezes all bank accounts for twelve months leading to December 2001 riots in Argentina.
- December 3 – Officials announce that one of the Taliban prisoners captured after the prison uprising at Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan is John Walker Lindh, a United States citizen.
- December 11
- December 13
- December 15 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years and $27,000,000 spent to fortify it, without fixing its famous lean.
- December 19
- December 22
- December 27
- December 29 – A fire at the Mesa Redonda shopping center in Lima, Peru, kills at least 291.
- February 2 – Connor Gibbs, American actor
- February 5 – Juan Karlos Labajo, Filipino singer and performer
- February 15 – Haley Tju, American actress
- February 19 – David Mazouz, American actor
- February 21 – Isabella Acres, American actress
- February 24 – Ramona Marquez, British actress
- March 10 – Alyssa Carson, astronaut trainee
- March 17 – Pietro Pellegri, Italian footballer
- March 30 – Anastasia Potapova, Russian tennis player
- May 8 – Jordyn Huitema, Canadian soccer player
- May 23 – Matthew Lintz, American actor
- May 24 – Darren Espanto, Filipino singer and performer
- June 1 – Ed Oxenbould, Australian actor
- June 19 – Ava Cantrell, American actress and dancer
- June 21 – Eleanor Worthington Cox, British actress
- June 24 – Mo'ne Davis, American athlete
- October 9 – Louis Hynes, British actor
- October 12 – Raymond Ochoa, American actor
- October 13 – Caleb McLaughlin, American actor
- October 14 – Rowan Blanchard, American actress
- October 17 – Thomas Strudwick, British motorcycle road racer
- October 19 – Art Parkinson, Irish actor
- October 25 – Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant, daughter and Heiress Apparent of Philippe, King of the Belgians
- December 1 – Aiko, Princess Toshi of Japan
- December 8 – Tylen Jacob Williams, American actor
- December 14 – Joshua Rush, American actor
- December 28 – Madison De La Garza, American actress
- January 1 – Ray Walston, American actor (b. 1914)
- January 2 – William P. Rogers, American diplomat (b. 1913)
- January 7 – Charles Helou, 9th President of Lebanon (b. 1913)
- January 9 – Paul Vanden Boeynants, 2-time Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1919)
- January 12
- January 16
- January 27 – Marie José of Belgium, last Queen of Italy (b. 1906)
- January 30 – Michel Marcel Navratil, last French citizen and male survivor of the Titanic disaster (b. 1908)
- January 31 – Gordon R. Dickson, Canadian writer (b. 1923)
- February 4 – Iannis Xenakis, Greek composer (b. 1922)
- February 7 – King Moody, American actor (b. 1929)
- February 9 – Herbert A. Simon, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1916)
- February 18
- February 19
- February 20 – Rosemary DeCamp, American actress (b. 1910)
- February 24 – Claude Shannon, American mathematician (b. 1916)
- February 25 – Sir Donald Bradman, Australian cricketer (b. 1908)
- March 1 – John Painter, World's Oldest Man between 1999 and 2001 (b. 1888)
- March 4 – Jean René Bazaine, French painter (b. 1904)
- March 12
- March 15
- March 18 – John Phillips, American singer-songwriter (b. 1935)
- March 20 – Ilie Verdeț, 51st Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1925)
- March 22 – William Hanna, American animator and businessman (b. 1910)
- March 31 – Clifford Shull, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1915)
- April 7
- April 8
- April 15 – Joey Ramone, American musician and singer (b. 1951)
- April 20
- April 21 – Jack Haley Jr., American film director and producer (b. 1933)
- April 25 – Michele Alboreto, Italian racing driver (b. 1956)
- April 29 – Barend Biesheuvel, Dutch politician and corporate director, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1971–1973) (b. 1920)
- May 11 – Douglas Adams, English author (b. 1952)
- May 12 – Perry Como, American singer (b. 1912)
- May 13 – R. K. Narayan, Indian novelist (b. 1906)
- May 17 – Jacques-Louis Lions, French mathematician (b. 1928)
- May 22 – Jenő Fock, 49th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1916)
- May 24 – Javier Urruticoechea, Spanish footballer (b. 1952)
- May 31 – Arlene Francis, American actress and game show panelist (b. 1907)
- June 1 – King Birendra of Nepal (b. 1945)
- June 2 – Imogene Coca, American actress (b. 1908)
- June 3 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican-American actor (b. 1915)
- June 4 – King Dipendra of Nepal (b. 1971)
- June 7 – Víctor Paz Estenssoro, President of Bolivia (b. 1907)
- June 10 – Leila Pahlavi, Iranian princess (b. 1970)
- June 17 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1919)
- June 21
- June 27
- June 28
- June 30 – Chet Atkins, American guitarist and record producer (b. 1924)
- July 1 – Nikolay Basov, Soviet physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1922)
- July 10 – Álvaro Magaña, 38th President of El Salvador (b. 1925)
- July 11 – Herman Brood, Dutch musician (b. 1946)
- July 21 – Sivaji Ganesan, Indian actor (b. 1928)
- July 24 – Hiroshi Tsuburaya, Japanese actor (b. 1964)
- July 26 – Josef Klaus, 16th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1910)
- July 28 – Ahmed Sofa, Bangladeshi writer (b. 1943)
- July 29 – Edward Gierek, Polish politician (b. 1913)
- July 31 – Francisco da Costa Gomes, President of Portugal (b. 1914)
- August 1
- August 3 – Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford, British peer, politician and reformer (b. 1905)
- August 4 – Lorenzo Music, American voice actor (b. 1937)
- August 6
- August 19 – Donald Woods, South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist (b. 1933)
- August 20 – Fred Hoyle, British astronomer and writer (b. 1915)
- August 22 – Bernard Heuvelmans, Belgian-French cryptozoologist (b. 1916)
- August 23 – Kathleen Freeman, American actress (b. 1919)
- August 24 – Jane Greer, American actress (b. 1924)
- August 25
- August 26 – Marita Petersen, 8th Prime Minister of Faroe Islands (b. 1940)
- August 30
- September 2
- September 3
- September 9 – Ahmad Shah Massoud, Afghan military commander (b. 1953)
- September 11
- Alice Stewart Trillin, American author, actor, and film producer (b.1938)
- 2,996 people (2,977 victims and 19 hijackers) who died in the September 11 attacks
- David Angell, American television producer (b. 1946)
- Berry Berenson, American photographer (and widow of Anthony Perkins) (b. 1948)
- Daniel Lewin, American-Israeli mathematician and entrepreneur (b. 1970)
- Barbara Olson, American television commentator (b. 1955)
- Garnet Bailey, Canadian hockey player and scout (b. 1948)
- Mohamed Atta, 9/11 ringleader of the hijackers and pilot of American Airlines Flight 11 (b. 1968)
- Welles Crowther, American investment banker. (b. 1977)
- Ahmed al-Nami, Saudi Arabian, one of the hijackers of United Airlines Flight 93. (b. 1977)
- September 12 – Victor Wong, Chinese-American character actor (b. 1927)
- September 13 – Frédéric-Antonin Breysse, French cartoonist (b. 1907)
- September 14 – Dorothy McGuire, American actress (b. 1916)
- September 20
- September 22 – Isaac Stern, Ukrainian violinist (b. 1920)
- September 29 – Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, Vietnamese politician (b. 1923)
- October 4 – Blaise Alexander, American automobile racing driver (b. 1976)
- October 15 – Zhang Xueliang, Chinese military figure (b. 1901)
- October 22
- October 24 – Jaromil Jireš, Czechoslovak filmmaker (b. 1935)
- November 1 – Juan Bosch, President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1909)
- November 3 – Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, Austrian-born art historian (b. 1909)
- November 5 – Gholam Reza Azhari, 73rd Prime Minister of Iran (b. 1912)
- November 6 – Milton William Cooper, American author and radio host (b. 1943)
- November 7 – Nida Blanca, Filipino actress (b. 1936)
- November 9 – Giovanni Leone, 37th Prime Minister of Italy and 6th President of Italy (b. 1908)
- November 10 – Ken Kesey, American author (b. 1935)
- November 17 – Michael Karoli, German musician (b. 1948)
- November 22 – Mary Kay Ash, American businesswoman (b. 1918)
- November 23 – Mary Whitehouse, British conservative activist (b. 1910)
- November 24
- November 25 – Gohar Shahi, Pakistani spiritual leader (b. 1941)
- November 29
- December 12 – Josef Bican, Czech-Austrian footballer (b. 1913)
- December 13 – Chuck Schuldiner, American singer and guitarist (b. 1967)
- December 16 – Stuart Adamson, Scottish singer and guitarist (Big Country) (b. 1958)
- December 18 – Marcel Mule, French saxophonist (b. 1901)
- December 20 – Léopold Sédar Senghor, First president of Senegal (b. 1906)
- December 22
- December 23 – Jelle Zijlstra, Dutch politician and economist, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1966–1967) (b. 1918)
- December 26 – Nigel Hawthorne, British actor (b. 1929)
- December 31 – Eileen Heckart, American actress (b. 1919)
- Physics – Eric Allin Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, and Carl Wieman
- Chemistry – William Standish Knowles, Ryōji Noyori, and Karl Barry Sharpless
- Medicine – Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, and Paul Nurse
- Literature – V. S. Naipaul
- Peace – United Nations, Kofi Annan
- Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – George Akerlof, Michael Spence, and Joseph Stiglitz
- "Why was Calcutta renamed to Kolkata?". Quora. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Kock, N., Jung, Y., & Syn, T. (2016). Wikipedia and e-Collaboration Research: Opportunities and Challenges. Archived September 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. International Journal of e-Collaboration (IJeC), 12(2), 1–8.
- Stevenson, Richard W. (2001-01-31). "SURPLUS ESTIMATE HITS $5.6 TRILLION". United States: NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- "23 Iraqis Reported Killed". Iraq; Great Britain: NYTimes.com. 2001-06-21. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- Longman, Jere (13 July 2001). "Beijing Is Selected as 2008 Host City". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- "'As Slow As Possible': World's Longest Running Concert At St. Burchard Church Turns 10". The Huffington Post. November 21, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- "Speech View". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on July 17, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- 2001 - The Year in Review - The Financial Times